Do you want to be TEFL or TESOL-certified and teach in HengshAnqiao Zhen? Are you interested in teaching English in Changzhou Shi? Check out ITTT’s online and in-class courses, Become certified to Teach English as a Foreign Language and start teaching English ONLINE or abroad! ITTT offers a wide variety of Online TEFL Courses and a great number of opportunities for English Teachers and for Teachers of English as a Second Language.
Teach English in HengshAnqiao Zhen - Changzhou Shi
Teachers are introduced to a wide variety of different approaches concerning Second Language learning and the influence behind these approaches. Future foreign and Second Language Teachers need to develop and to understand approaches to see how they influence the outcome of the teaching process. According to David Nunan, it seems significant to grasp the difference between the syllabus design and Methodology in order to get a Clair definition of teaching methodology, that “ Syllabus Design is concerned with what, why and when Methodology is concerned with how”(David Nunan 1991 p p2). On the other hand, there are many different definitions of methodology that are mentioned in the Longman Dictionary of applied linguistics, it is linked to teaching language skills such as, writing, reading, speaking and listening and the way to teach them. In addition, “methodology is the study of practices and producers used in teaching, and the principals and beliefs that underline them” Nunan (1991 p2). It guides teachers to plan their courses in the classroom and gives them the important steps which they can use to prepare a lesson due to the usage of materials and textbooks in order to teach a second language. Teaching methods and approaches are based on the analysis and the evaluation of the qualities of the subjects used in teaching language or matter in relation to learning principals and activities that are practised in the classroom. Thus, most of the researches claimed that there are different approaches used in teaching methods, they also distinguish between two main methods: the Audio lingual method and the communicative approach, also gave a tentative definition of other approaches. More precisely, each method has its own characteristics that make it different from the other one, thus, what are the fundamental basics that are charged with? 1. The Audio Lingual Method: this method was based on the structure as a measure of encoding meaning and sentences in a ruled governed way. Phonemic levels to be mastered in relation to the structure, that is to say, that the Audio Lingual Method gives the importance to the spoken level as a measure to make learners familiarized and closer to the target language sounds (Jack C Richard and Theoders Rodregs 1985 /2001), As far as the theory of learning is concerned, repetition is the process that enhances learner S to avoid mistakes, and memorize patterns of grammatical rules, that can be explained as the following: some researchers linked the audio-lingual method to the behaviourism; which means that there is a relation between the audio-lingual method and behaviourism where there are a lot of similarities reinforced by teachers. The audio-lingual method is based on behaviourism, it deals with many principals which are the following: Throughout repetition learning, tasks become habits for learners( Richard and Theodor). Avoid mistakes because they make a bad habit, where ever a student makes mistakes teacher correct and penalize him or her, in other words, a teacher intervenes to correct mistakes. Speaking skills come first then it could be followed by the written ones. It makes a comparison between structures rather than analysis. The meaning of words can be learned only in a linguistic and cultural context. According to Jack a Theoders (2001) “since the structure is what is important and unique about the language, early practised should focus on mastery of phonological and grammatical structure rather than on mastery of vocabulary” (p56). As far as the principals mentioned above it could be explained that learners have no right to make mistakes, they have to react in an appropriate way towards the tasks. In other words, they have no chance to interpret or make an analysis of how words are linked to each other. This is what was called learning by doing which means following instructions with interpretation. Moreover, learners have to respond to individuals rather than working in pairs or in groups, if they do it may influence each other in terms of mistakes (Richard and Teodors 2001). The audio-lingual method considers the teacher as the central reference for the student, in addition, he has to control the participation of learners throughout correcting performance level during the interaction within the classroom activities, in fact, he needs to drill activities to give the learner the access to master structure (Richard and Theoders 2001). Here is a typically procedure in an audio-lingual method course: students hear a model dialogue, they should repeat each line of the dialogue and then the teacher changes some items from the dialogue and within the same drill pattern students make a practice which means that learners are as an empty vessel that must be filled up within pure knowledge. 2. The Grammar Translation Method The grammar-translation method or the classical method appeared when people from the western world especially Greeks and Latin whom they want to learn foreign languages; it focuses on the grammatical rules, the memorization of vocabulary items and the translations of text from the target language into the mother tongue. Here are some principals of the grammar-translation method They gave priority to the mother tongue and gave a very limited active use of the target language. The vocabulary was taught in the form of lists on which such words had a singular equivalent in the mother tongue. Explanation of differences and grammar difficulties were provided. Grammar provides the rule of putting words together and studying inflexions, and instruction focuses on the form and the inflexion of words. Assigned student from the beginning with reading comprehension and asked them to translate. The grammatical structures were highlighted and selected then identified from texts. As a result, the grammar-translation method believed that the best way to teach languages is through the teaching of grammar and the translation of texts. 3. The Direct Method It came as a reaction against the grammar-translation method, which means teaching the target language directly without translation, in other words, the way of learning the second language should be the same as learning the first language. The direct method aimed to provide a lot of speaking and listening in order to produce a student to speak the language spontaneously as native speakers. The direct method like any other method it has its own principals which make it different from other methods: It is only the target language that is used to speak with students. Teach student vocabulary items that may help them in their daily basis and needs. Having oral interactions between teachers and students which means asking questions and students have to answer by starting from the difficult questions that are what is called ”gradual progression”. Grammar was taught inductively not deductively which means from the beginning till the end, by giving examples to students to come up with the grammatical rules, Teaching points were given to students such as a model exercise. Realia is used by teachers, which means that they bring objects and pictures to teach a particular topic or item to students, in order to be understood, it is a very successful way to learn the ESL. Speaking and listening skills should be taught. If the student made a mistake in pronunciation, then the teacher should correct the mistake of pronunciation as well as of grammar. 4. Communicative language teaching Communicative language teaching considers language means of expressing needs interacting with others. The goal of the language is to communicate, participate in daily life. Activities and transmitting taught, moreover, the communication is fundamental through which people establish a relationship and maintain the understanding of other’s intentions during the process of communication. Thus, language should be taught in terms of how it is used within a social and cultural context, while language is not only a verbal system but it is non-verbal features too, in other words, the performance should be taking into consideration to communicate successfully. According to Jack Richards and Theodes Rodregs (2001), the communicative language teaching of language has four main characteristics: Language is a system for the expression of meaning. the primary function of language is to allow interaction and communication. the structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses. the primary features but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse (Richards and Theoders 2001, p 161), The communicative language teaching gives the opportunity to communicators to communicate there thoughts and exchange ideas, rather than mastering the grammatical rules Some linguists think that learners have to communicate within the group and immerged to the interaction within the classroom territories, moreover, they need to ask questions of discussion to solve problems. The teacher’s role could be described as a second role, in other words, teachers have two sorts of responsibility, first, they have to help learners to communicate and facilitate the flow of communication process, and he needs to enhance learners to react towards the various classroom activities,( Richards and Teoders 2001). 5.The lexical approach The lexical approach is based on vocabulary task through which collocation is provided to learners in order to help them to have adequate knowledge about the language in terms of how vocabulary items are related to the topic’s context. The approach considers vocabulary as a central task which is designed for the syllabus. The theory of language according to Richards and Theoders is what people acquire an unlimited amount of vocabulary throughout the conversation, words have to be put together to fit the situation on the context, those words may help learners to reach a good comprehension. The lexical approach based on lexical tasks rather than grammar tasks. On the other hands, the teacher should profit are used for functional purposes, such as making a suggestion, request, favour or apology. On the whole, the lexical approach is based on the combination of vocabulary in teaching language instead of grammar, function or notions(Richards and Rodregs 2001). So far, it has been clear that the production of approaches and methods are whole complex process but involves different procedures of teaching vocabulary, from finding results we deduce that the communicative language teaching is the most effective approach in teaching because it makes combination of various techniques such as dialogues and use of language based on realia, which facilitate the way of teaching, whereas, the use of other methods is very limited.