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In my experience teaching English online, I have used many different kinds of resources from widely-published textbooks to websites for English learning to content specifically developed for a company's clients. I have found that when choosing the type of resources, it is important to consider the learners' skills, objectives, and even how much time they have to review the material. Many adult learners who enroll in online English classes are only exposed to English during the lesson and have little to no time to read, watch, or listen to materials outside of their time with their trainers. Using textbooks is effective for people who want a more structured way to learn English. I think that textbooks are great for grammar lessons because the teachers and the learners have a clear learning path that they can follow. Improvements and gaps in grammar are also more easily measured and addressed when using textbooks because the increase in difficulty is more evident with each chapter covered. A very big disadvantage of using textbooks to teach grammar in the online setting is that for many adult learners, grammar is quite boring because it feels like learning in school. These learners, because of time constraints, would rather spend time applying grammar rules in conversation. I think that it is important for teachers to come up with additional activities to make lessons more lively and more relevant to the learners. Textbooks may be used to present topics and do some practice exercises, but the teacher should spend more time in letting the learner use the language creatively. There are many online grammar resources that teachers and learners can use in their lessons. Since these are free, they can be a good option for those who find textbooks too expensive, difficult to find, or rigid. There is a lot of content produced by credible sources and institutions like the British Council and the Cambridge Dictionary that are widely available. I prefer to use these types of resources as guides for teachers because the topics are presented in a way that can help teachers explain grammar topics in a simpler manner. Content like this also helps discuss the nuances of grammar, so more advanced learners can also look at these resources as supplementary material. News sites and online magazines published by reputable institutions may be used to teach vocabulary, particularly to advanced learners. Using these materials can also expose learners to genuine use of language. In addition, they can be used as topics for discussion during the online lesson. Again, it is important for teachers to thoroughly review these types of materials before using them in lessons or assigning them as homework. Teachers must consider the learners' specific needs, interests, and culture. In general, teachers must avoid sending articles that may be too challenging, irrelevant, or sensitive. When teaching vocabulary using these resources, teachers should also try to allow learners to use new words and expressions in discussing topics connected to the learner's job and personal interests. It is very difficult to teach beginner adult students these types of resources. Since they have very little understanding of basic English structures and systems, they may be confused with more complex sentences and nuanced language. However, because of their work or life experiences, they may have a deeper understanding of the subject discussed in the text. If teachers have time, they may try to present easier parts of the text for discussion or choose easier vocabulary that is still relevant, useful, and interesting to the learner. Coursebooks for beginner adult students with focus on reading and vocabulary may also be a good option, but may be limited in terms of the range of topics that will be discussed during online lessons. One interesting aspect of online English learning is access to more video resources on the Internet. Sites like YouTube and the New York Times are excellent sources of videos for those who want to improve their listening skills and vocabulary. Learners can also be exposed to different accents while watching videos on YouTube. There are also many videos and channels dedicated to teaching grammar, pronunciation, and conversation. Videos that are specifically made for English learning may be useful, but teachers should take care to avoid using these videos as substitute lessons. In my opinion, the teacher should again organize activities that can encourage their learners to produce language. Beginners can struggle to find appropriate words to express their thoughts. It can also be difficult for them to understand the vocabulary used by their teachers in the lesson. In these cases, translation sites and multilingual dictionaries can be useful in instantly looking up words. These words can then be presented as input and used several times throughout the lesson to ensure learning and retention. Online dictionaries like Lexico and Cambridge can also help the teacher find more examples of how to use words and expressions they would like to teach. I would avoid directly translating entire sentences from the learner's native language to English because online translation tools are not always accurate and do not guarantee retention of the teaching point. Photos from stock image sites may also be used to quickly verify translations or help the learner find the right words. Teaching English online is not too different from teaching English face-to-face or offline. If teachers and learners have access to offline resources such as coursebooks, then these may be used in online lessons as well. Online tools and resources may also be used to provide a more authentic and flexible learning experience for learners. Although the Internet can make English learning more convenient, teachers must not be too complacent. When teachers are aware of their roles and the objectives of their learners, they can effectively work with pretty much anything.