Teach English in JiAngbei Guanliqu - Huangshi Shi

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In this essay, I will examine the different stages of the ESA methodology and the role they play in memory retention. Key terms: ESA: The ESA (Engage, Study, Activate) methodology is the methodology used throughout this course. Engage Phase: In this phase, the teacher will try to arouse the students' interest and get them thinking and speaking in English. Where possible, the theme of the conversation will be related to the topic of the lesson. Attention: Attention involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. (W.W Weiten, 2014) Study Phase: In the study phase, the teacher will elicit information from the class and complete board work to present the language point. The students will then do a drilling exercise and complete a worksheet to check their comprehension of the new language. Activate Phase: The activate phase encourages the students to use any/all the language they know to communicate with each other. Memory Coding: The act of learning new information. Memory retention: The ability to retain, recall and use information that was learnt in a prior lesson. Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart(1972) argue that different rates of memory retention occur because some methods of teaching create more durable memory codes than others do. As EFL teachers, we want students to retain and use the information they receive in our classes to improve their proficiency in English. The ESA methodology, that this course is structured around, will give students the best chance of retaining information for use in conversation. The engage phase of the ESA methodology will determine the level of attention students will give to the teacher during the lesson. Therefore it is crucial that all students are interested and involved in this phase to ensure effective memory coding in the study phase. Using topics that are related to the lesson will allow for a meaningful and smooth transition from the engage phase to the study phase. In the study phase, the teacher will work through the levels of processing, as proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972), to create meaningful memory codes. The first proposed level of processing is shallow processing and requires structural encoding. This level of encoding emphasises the physical structure of a stimulus. To elicit structural encoding, the teacher will obtain information or words from the students and write it on the board. When students see the physical structure of new language, the first level of encoding is reached. Phonemic encoding is used for intermediate processing and emphasises what a word sounds like. When using drilling exercises to practice intonation and pronunciation, the students are encoding the phonemic aspects of the word. Letting students do activities such as rhyming new words with words they already know, will elicit the appropriate phonemic encoding for long term memory retention. Deep processing requires semantic encoding, which emphasises the meaning of verbal input (using the new language or word). When creating worksheets for the study phase, questions (like "Would the word fit in the sentence?") or gap-fill activities, will elicit this type of encoding. Unit 17 of this course covers the use of visual aids in the classroom to obtain words or information. In a study about the effect of visual imagery on retention, Paivio, Smythe, and Yuille (1968) found that subjects would retain words more easily if they could make a visual connotation to them. Therefore, the use of visual imagery can drastically improve the retention of information if it is used correctly. Without rehearsal, information in short-term memory is lost within 10- 20 seconds (Nairne, 2003). Hence, the activate phase will have students using any/all of the language they know to rehearse the information they received in that lesson. Activities in the activate phase will often include communicative games. When a student's motivation to remember is high at the time of encoding, they will exert greater effort to organise new information in ways that will facilitate future recall. (Kassam, Gilbert, Swencionis, Wilson, 2009) This means that, if the teacher informs the students of the game and the possible rewards for winning before teaching the lesson, students' motivation to remember will be higher while absorbing the new information. During the game, students should receive points on fluency and the amount of new information they could recall. This will establish better retention of information and better memory retention habits. In this essay, I have shown that the ESA method for lesson planning and presenting, is structured to help students effectively retain information. Understanding the ESA methodology and how it assists students, is a valuable asset to any new teacher. List of recourses: Craik, F.I.M., Lockhart, R.S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 11, 671-684. Kassam, J.K., Gilbert, D.T., Swencionis, J.K.& Wilson, T.D. (2009). Misconceptions of memory: The Scooter Libby effect. Psychological science, 20, 551-552. Nairne, J.S. (2003). Sensory and working memory. In A. F. Hely & R.W. Proctor(Eds.), Handbook of psychology: vol. 4. Experimental psychology. New York, NY: Wiley. Weiten, W. (2014). Psychology themes and variations (10th ed. pp. 224 - 259. Canada, Cengage Learning.