Teach English in Amugulang Zhen - Hulunbei'er Shi — Hulunbuir

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Introduction:- Child development refers to the biological and psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence then through adulthood, as the individual. Progress from dependency to increasing autonomy. Child development refers to the process through which human beings typically grow and mature from infancy through adulthood. The different aspects of growth and development that are measured include physical growth, cognitive growth, and social growth. Child development focuses on the changes that take place in humans as they mature from birth to about age 17. Theories of Child Development Throughout history, there have been many theories on how we develop throughout childhood. Some of the most recognized include those developed by Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, and Lev Vygotsky. Sigmund Freud devised a psychosexual stage theory of development. He believed that children move through specific stages of development due to innate unconscious sexual drives. Freud's stage theory ends at adulthood. Erik Erikson also created a stage theory of development, but his is a bit different from Freud's. Erikson focused more on social relationships as a driving force in development and referred to the developmental tasks as psychosocial stages. Erikson's theory is one of the most comprehensive and covers human development from birth through old age. Lev Vygotsky's theory of development also focuses on social interactions as important in development. His theory views children in an apprentice role with parents mentoring them through developmental tasks. Stages of child development:- There are 4 stages of child development: 1. Infancy:- infancy refers to the period of time from a child’s birth to 2 years of age. During infancy, the child is totally dependent on the caregiver for the fulfillment of her needs. After birth this is the period of the child’s most rapid growth and development. 2. Childhood:- The period of childhood is from 2 to 12 years of age. The period of early childhood(2 to 6 years of age) and middle childhood(6 to 12 years). Development at this stage is less rapid than during infancy. During childhood, the child refines the skills she has acquired during infancy, uses basic processes to progressively acquire more complex skills and learns entirely new skills. 3. Adolescence:- The beginning of adolescence (12 to 18 years) is marked as puberty. Puberty refers to the stage around 11 to 14 years of age. When child undergoes a series of life- altering changes. 4. Adulthood:- although adulthood starts when someone turns 18 years old, there may be different societal criteria for considering a person an adult. An adult almost completely stops changing physically and is considered fully mature. Why is it important to study childhood development? The emotional, social and physical development of young children has a direct effect on their overall development and on the adult they will become. That is why understanding the need to invest in very young children is so important, so as to maximize their future well-being. Neurological research shows that the early years play a key role in children’s brain development. Babies begin to learn about the world around them from a very early age – including during the prenatal, perinatal (immediately before and after birth) and postnatal period. Children’s early experiences- the bonds they form with their parents and their first learning experiences- deeply affect their future physical, cognitive, emotional and social development. Optimizing the early years of children’s lives is the best investment we can make as a society in ensuring their future success. 8 things to remember about child development:- #1. Even infants and young children are affected adversely when significant stresses threaten their family and caregiving environments. #2. Development is a highly interactive process, and life outcomes are not determined solely by genes. #3. While attachments to their parents are primary, young children can also benefit significantly from relationships with other responsive caregivers both within and outside the family. #4. A great deal of brain architecture is shaped during the first 3 years after birth, but the window of opportunity for its development does not close on a child’s third birthday. #5. Severe neglect appears to be at least as great a threat to health and development as physical abuse-possibly even better. #6. Young children who have been exposed to adversity or violence do not invariably develop stress-related disorders or grow up to be violent adults. #7. Simply removing a child from a dangerous environment will not automatically reverse the negative impacts of that experience. #8. Resilience requires relationships, not rugged individualism. Conclusion:- Early childhood development is crucial to how a person develops later on in life. Reasons for a how a person acts, behaves, and thinks can be traced back to their childhood circumstances and environment. Parents also play a very important role in a child’s development. If they are involved and provide a nurturing and rich environment then they contribute in a positive way to their child’s development, which will help them later on in life. The human brain is most impressionable in the first several years of life. This is why these years are so extremely important and can impact a person’s life even into adulthood. Unhealthy eating habits and negative social interactions, such as a child being isolated, can lead to a child not developing in a proper way. A child who is raised under these circumstances could suffer the consequences later on in life such as speech impediments or the inability to socialize in a proper and civilized manner. However, parents can do many things to ensure their child’s developmental process is successful such as, developing a positive bond with their child, surrounding their child with positive influences and encouraging family and friends, and attending child development support groups if need be. Since children truly are the future of any society it is important that each community recognizes the proper steps that need to be taken in order to ensure each and every child is given the opportunity to develop properly. Early childhood development programs are extremely effective and should strongly be considered by parents. Research has proven that those who attend ECD(Early Child Development) programs benefit greatly. These children see better results in school, have better social and more stable emotional behavior, and develop stronger relationships with their parents, to name a few. Overall, early childhood development is an extremely important issue which needs to gain recognition. Every parent needs to understand and be aware of how crucial the first several years of their child’s life is. They should not hesitate to research or ask for help on this topic if need be.