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The development of an individual lies in several factors and influences. The most crucial part is when they are learning not only the basics of being a ‘human’ but also their norms, values, characters, and identities. This typically happens in childhood. A period in which an individual is exposed mostly to his or her agents of primary socialization. This is the first and the most important period of learning in which an individual absorbs the basic norms of behavior and the culture of one’s society. Our parent’s social background and belief system such as their values always affect a child’s educational development and achievement. Families from the working class and ethnic minorities may have the value of fatalism or a belief that they cannot change what their current situation or status is. If instilled in children, they may not exert any effort in any educational or school activities. Aside from this, they may also practice immediate gratification or the value of choosing instant satisfaction. This will ensure that instead of exerting more time and more effort to on task or activity for greater rewards or achievement, they would just eventually spend their time and resources right away, not thinking of its consequences. There are also some parents who do not value education, as they may not have a successful positive role model, may have negative experiences in schools or in education, or may even feel being marginalized in society. Aside from these values, they may even suffer from material deprivation: not having enough food or if there is enough food, whether that food is healthy or not; the space we need in studying, is it crowded or conducive for learning?; the access to supplies and educational tools like books, stationaries, and computer with internet. Children may adopt these values and feel deprived or lacking in terms of their school needs and support. Therefore, they perform less in schools. On the other hand, upper and middle-class families know the value and importance of education. They are well exposed to the material, social, and cultural capitals that greatly give many advantages to them. These include having values such as determination and hard work, preference to elaborated language, visit to museums and galleries, access to the internet and other resources, familiarity with books and reading, and a clear sense of the importance of education. These parents also know how the education system and institution works and how to use it for their children. Most likely, children will perform better in schools and may end up studying in prestigious universities. School factors are also important in a child’s development. These are also important in considering student achievement, progress, or development. The teachers, school activities, facilities, and the curriculum are all included here. If teachers are caring, kind, encouraging, and really love teaching, then good rapport and interaction with their students is possible. Even if there is an absence of some important tools, learning devices, equipment, and facilities, engaging into the learning of the students is more into the positive interaction of students and teachers. One major sociological and psychological development of a child is through the labelling theory. This theory is concerned about how other people give ‘label’ to individuals. Once the label is given, the individual who receives it might internalize it and it becomes his or her identity. Teachers are constantly involved in giving feedback or criticisms to their students. If the student receives negative feedback, let us say, by not submitting homework or failing in exams, without the proper processing of the teacher or by the parents at home, then this will most likely affect his or her behavior in a negative way. Through labelling, they will think that they are failures and are not meant for success. This is now the time that they will lack in confidence, will avoid participating in schoolwork, might display rowdy behavior, and might show aggressiveness to teachers and the school. This is a negative phase in a child’s growth and development. The teacher must be careful in correcting students without offending or insulting them. He or she must be sensitive to the feelings, experiences, and backgrounds of the students. Other important factors in shaping the child’s potential are through his or her peer groups and the influence of the mass media. These factors can properly shape the child’s potential with the positive guidance of their parents and teachers. Some scientists like sociobiologists consider the fact that a child’s traits, intelligence, and personality are coded already in our genes. We cannot deny the fact that some of our physical characteristics like color of hair and eye, nose, height. This means that we inherit our abilities, talents, and even behavior from our parents and ancestors. This nature argument in the nature-nurture is still an ongoing debate and several kinds of research are still needed to be conducted to support this claim. All of these factors discussed can be instilled during the primary and secondary socialization where children learn their behavior and identity. Children pick up the languages, behavior, norms, and values of their parents and of their families. Children are also exposed to the learning environment provided by the schools. These processes are important considerations in shaping the interests, potential, and values of children towards education and success. References: Blundell, Jonathan. (2014). Cambridge IGCSE Sociology, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press Blundell, Jonathan. (2001). Active Sociology for GCSE, China, Pearson Education Limited O’Donell, Gerald (2002). Mastering Sociology, New York, PALGRAVE