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In this work I would like to discover the acquisition in first and second language. The key difference between first language and second language is their acquisition. The first language is the language one learns first, and this is usually a natural and effortless process while the second language is the language one acquires after the first language, and this acquisition is usually a challenging process. FIRST LANGUAGE First language (L1) is the language a person learns first. We also call this first language native language and mother tongue. It is actually the language you learn and speak at home. Thus, children learn their first language from their parents, grandparents or caretakers. Therefore, one learns the first language effortlessly and naturally by listening to parents, and other caretakers communicating in this language. For example, a child brought up in an Italian household (all members of the house communicate with each other in Italian) will grow up learning Italian. However, some people are brought up in families with different language background. For example, if a child’s father is Spanish and mother is Japanese, and both parents use their respective native language with the child, the child will grow up having two first languages. Furthermore, however many languages you know and speak, you are always most fluent and competent in your first language. You know many idiomatic expressions, sentence structures, and natural patterns of your first language better. Although native speakers of a particular language (those who use a particular language as the first language) are not necessarily knowledgeable about every grammatical rule of the language, they usually good sense about language rules and usage through their experience with the language. SECOND LANGUAGE Second language learning, on the other hand, is an active process. We need to learn vocabulary and grammar in order to achieve our goal. Most people will need an instructor, either a teacher at school or the instructions of a course book or audio course. If we ever want to achieve fluency or near fluency in a second language, it requires years of studying and likely a long stay in another country. Many people will never reach anywhere near fluency with any second language.Most experts see the ages between three to four years as the critical age when first language acquisition ends and second language learning begins. CONCLUSION Language learning, on the other hand, is the result of direct instruction in the rules of language. Language learning is not an age-appropriate activity for very young children as learning presupposes that learners have a conscious knowledge of the new language and can talk about that knowledge. They usually have a basic knowledge of the grammar. When we learn a language we have a deductive approach to the intonations, phonology, morphology, syntax of the target language. This happens when we start being schooled in this language, when we learn to read and write. Reading and writing is not intuitive. We need to learn that signs (letters and letter combinations) represent a sound, and that their combination, have a meaning that conveys our thoughts. We learn that there are rules for each language, concerning the position of the words in a sentence, that intonation can vary and change the meaning of a word and a sentence, that one word can have many different meanings, depending on the context. From a neurolinguistics point of view, language acquisition and language learning are processed in two different ways in the brain. During early infancy, language processing – during acquisition – occurs in many areas of the brain. Only over time it gradually becomes concentrated into two areas: the Broca’s area, which is situated in the left Frontal cortex and is involved in the production of the patterns in vocal and sign language, and the Wernikes’s area , in the left Temporal cortex that is primarily involved in language comprehension. The Broca’s area is the one actively involved in language acquisition processes, whereas the Wernicke’s area is active in the language learning process. www.differencebetween.com www.brighthubeducation.com http://www.utesinternationallounge.com